Genetic là gì


A gene is the basic physical và functional unit of heredity. Genes are made up of DNA. Some genes act as instructions khổng lồ make molecules called proteins. However, many genes vì chưng not code for proteins. In humans, genes vary in kích thước from a few hundred DNA bases to more than 2 million bases. An international research effort called the Human Genome Project, which worked to determine the sequence of the human genome & identify the genes that it contains, estimated that humans have between trăng tròn,000 và 25,000 genes.

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Every person has two copies of each gene, one inherited from each parent. Most genes are the same in all people, but a small number of genes (less than 1 percent of the total) are slightly different between people. Alleles are forms of the same ren with small differences in their sequence of DNA bases. These small differences contribute to lớn each person’s quality physical features.

Scientists keep track of genes by giving them chất lượng names. Because ren names can be long, genes are also assigned symbols, which are short combinations of letters (& sometimes numbers) that represent an abbreviated version of the gen name. For example, a gen on chromosome 7 that has been associated with cystic fibrosis is called the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; its symbol is CFTR.

Genes are made up of DNA. Each chromosome contains many genes.


Credit: U.S. National Library of Medicine

For more information about genes: Genetics provides consumer-friendly gen summaries that include an explanation of each gene"s normal function & how variants in the ren cause particular genetic conditions.

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More information about how genetic conditions and genes are named is also available from Genetics.

The Centre for Genetics Education offers a fact sheet that introduces genes và chromosomes.

The Tech Museum of Innovation at Stanford University describes genes và how they were discovered.

The Virtual Genetics Education Centre, created by the University of Leicester, offers additional information on DNA, genes, and chromosomes.

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Genetics Home Reference has merged with Genetics trang chủ Reference nội dung now can be found in the "Genetics" section of Learn more

The information on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Contact a health care provider if you have questions about your health.

U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health